The Crusades - What were the Crusades?
The Crusades were a series of Holy Wars launched by the Christian states of Europe against the Saracens. The term 'Saracen' was the word used to describe a Moslem during the time of the Crusades. The Crusades started in 1095 when Pope Claremont preached the First Crusade at the Council of Claremont. The Pope's preaching led to thousands immediately affixing the cross to their garments - the name Crusade given to the Holy Wars came from old French word 'crois' meaning 'cross'. The Crusades were great military expeditions undertaken by the Christian nations of Europe for the purpose of rescuing the holy places of Palestine from the hands of the Mohammedans. They were eight in number, the first four being sometimes called the Principal Crusades, and the remaining four the Minor Crusades. In addition there was a Children's Crusade. There were several other expeditions which were insignificant in numbers or results. For full details, facts and information about the crusades click one of the following links:
What was the Cause for the Crusades?
The reason for the crusades was a war between Christians and Moslems which centered around the city of Jerusalem. The City of Jerusalem held a Holy significance to the Christian religion. The Church of the Holy Sepulchre in Jerusalem commemorated the hill of crucifixion and the tomb of Christ's burial and was visited by Pilgrims. In 1065 Jerusalem was taken by the Turks and 3000 Christians were massacred starting a chain of events which contributed to the cause of the crusades.
What were the Objectives of the Crusades?
The Objectives of the crusades was at first to release the Holy Land, in particular Jerusalem, from the Saracens, but in time was extended to seizing Spain from the Moors, the Slavs and Pagans from eastern Europe, and the islands of the Mediterranean.
How many Crusades were there?
There were a total of nine crusades! The first four crusades were seen as the most import and scant reference is made to the other crusades - with the exception of the Children's crusade which effectively led to the decline of the crusades. For a period of two hundred years Europe and Asia were engaged in almost constant warfare. Throughout this period there was a continuous movement of crusaders to and from the Moslem possessions in Asia Minor, Syria, and Egypt.
The First Crusade
The first crusade, which lasted from 1095-1099, established the Latin Kingdom of Jerusalem, providing more lands for the crusading knights, who often travelled across Europe to try their fortunes and to visit the Holy Sepulchre.
The Fall of Jerusalem and Acre - the Last Crusades
The kingdom of Jerusalem was gradually lost until the last Christian city, Acre, fell in 1291. The dream of returning to the Holy Land nonetheless proved popular; the Kings of France and England frequently made such plans, though in nearly every case the crusades were redirected or derailed by regional tensions.
The Crusades and the Orders of Religious Knights
The crusades also gave rise to the important knightly orders, the Knights Templar, the Teutonic Knights and the Hospitallers. These were orders of religious knights, working from monastic rule to defend the holy land and pilgrims en route to Jerusalem.
The Effects of the Crusades
The effects of the Crusades on Europe of the Middle Ages were an important factor in the history of the progress of civilization. The effects of the Crusades influenced the wealth and power of the Catholic Church, Political matters, commerce, feudalism, intellectual development, social effects, material effects and the effects of the crusades also prompted the famous Voyages of discovery.
The Crusades - The Kingdom of Jerusalem
The Kingdom of Jerusalem was ruled by European Kings and Queens between 1099 and 1291. This section details the founding of the Kingdom of Jerusalem by by Godfrey of Bouillon, the first ruler of the Kingdom of Jerusalem and its fall into the hands of Saladin. The names of all the Kings and Queens of the Kingdom of Jerusalem are also listed on this section.
The crusaders came from both the Upper and Lower classes. What prompted tens of thousands of people to travel 1000 miles to go on the First Crusade? What privileges were granted to crusaders?
The Crusades Timeline
Interesting Facts and information about Crusades Timeline in the Middle Ages. People and events in the Middle Ages via the Crusades Timeline. The Crusades Timeline details the key dates and leaders of all the crusades.
Holy Land Pilgrimage
The Holy Land Pilgrimages sprang from the pilgrimages which Christians had long been accustomed to make to the scenes of Christ's life on earth.
Each section of this Middle Ages website addresses all topics and provides interesting facts and information about these great monuments to bygone times. The Sitemap provides full details of all of the information and facts provided about the fascinating subject of Middle Ages!
Bibliography: See A General History for Colleges and High Schools Author: P. V. N. Myers