Middle Ages

The Middle Ages - 1066 -1485
The Middle Ages encompass one of the most turbulent periods in English History. Starting with the Battle of Hastings and the Norman Conquest - when William the Conqueror effectively took all of the lands from the Saxon English and gave them to French nobles. The English Middle Ages then saw the building of the great English castles, including the Tower of London, which helped the Normans to retain their hold on England. The start of the Crusades and the knights of the Middle Ages, including the founding of the Knights Templar. The Domesday Book and the Magna Carta. The Kings and Queens of the Middle Ages including Richard the Lionheart and great Plantagenet Kings from Henry II (1154-1189) to Edward III (1327-1377). The Hundred Years War between England and France. The Medieval Kings and Queens of the Royal Houses of Lancaster and York and the Wars of the Roses. The Middle Ages Feudal System and the terrible Black Death which really did plague the period of the Middle Ages.

Definition of the Middle Ages in England
The Middle Ages are so called as the middle period between the decline of the Roman Empire and the Renaissance. The early Middle Ages are often referred to as the Dark Ages. The Middle Ages are also referred to as the Medieval era.

Definition of the Middle Ages dates in England - 1066 - 1485
Their is some variance in the views and definition of the dates which encompassed the Middle Ages. We have included events in England from the Battle of Hastings in 1066 and ending in the emergence of the English Renaissance period with the Tudor dynasty in 1485. To put this into perspective, and for ease of reference, the periods in English history have been categorised as follows:

  • Neolithic - Stone Age ( 3000 - 1800 BC )
  • The Bronze & Iron Age ( 1800 - 600 BC )
  • The Romans (600 BC - 410 AD)
  • The Dark Ages - Anglo-Saxon England ( 410 AD - 1066 AD )
  • The Middle Ages - 1066 - 1485
  • The Renaissance Period in England starting with the Tudor Dynasty

Life in the Middle Ages
What was life really like in the Middle Ages? The life of all the classes was dominated by the feudal system. What was Village life and general Daily Life like during the middle ages?  The daily life of a noble lord, a knight, a noblewoman, a peasant, a peasant woman, a monk and a nun. The jobs and occupations dictated the quality of life during the Middle Ages. Life in the Middle Ages also include an entertainment section  and Medieval sports providing the History, Facts and Information about the sports and games played during the time of Middle Ages. The entertainment section also details Middle Ages Music. People in the Middle Ages enjoyed various types of music and dance. This section covers the Music of Middle Ages providing information about the music, and musical instruments. There are facts and information about Musical Instruments in the Middle Ages, Troubadours and Minstrels.

Middle Ages Religion
Christianity, religion and the church played an important role in life in the Middle Ages. This section therefore provides interesting facts and information about the religious life in the Middle Ages including Religious Festivals, the Great Schism, The Great Schism, Daily Life of a Monk in the Middle Ages, Daily Life of a Nun in the Middle Ages, Medieval Monks, Medieval Nuns, the Anchoress and Anchorite, Monasticism, the Benedictine Rule, Benedictine Monks, a Medieval Monastery and a Medieval Convent or Nunnery.

The History of the Middle Ages with Timelines, Key dates and Events
The facts and information provided via the Middle Ages website provide access to the most important historical events of the period which are detailed in the pages about the Domesday Book, Black Death, Magna Carta, Battle of Hastings, Wars of the Roses, the One Hundred Years War and the Bayeux Tapestry. The History and Key Events of the Middle Ages included:

  • The Battle of Hastings and the Norman Conquest
  • The Bayeux Tapestry
  • The Doomsday Book ( aka Domesday Book )
  • The Magna Carta
  • The Hundred Years War between England and France
  • The Black Death
  • The Wars of the Roses and the Battle of Bosworth
  • The Great Schism of 1054 and the Great Western Schism

Feudalism
The most important and interesting aspects and facts about feudalism in the Middle Ages have been comprehensively detailed including sections on the Feudalism Pyramid, Middle Ages Feudalism, European Feudalism, the Feudal System, Feudal Justice and the Decline of Feudalism. The emergence of Manorialism in England is described including sections on Manorialism, Medieval Manors, the Lord of the Manor, the Lady of the Manor and a full description of a Medieval Manor House of the Middle Ages. Facts and interesting information about the people who lived under the system of feudalism and manorialism. The lives of the following Medieval people of the middle Ages include Feudalism in England, Vassals and the Oath of Fealty, the Fief, Serfs and the Villein, Farming in the Middle Ages and information about Feudalism and Knights 

Middle Ages - Crusades in the Middle Ages
Pilgrimages to Jerusalem were made by people in the Middle Ages who had been guaranteed their safety in the city. In 1065 Jerusalem was taken by the Turks and Christians were treated so badly that throughout Christendom people were stirred to fight in crusades. This section about Crusades in the Middle Ages covers the Crusaders, the Cause of the Crusades, the Effects of the Crusades the history of the First, Second, Third and Fourth Crusades. A Middle Ages Timeline of the First Crusade, the Childrens Crusade, the Minor Crusades.  A Crusades Timeline, the Kingdom of Jerusalem, the Holy Land Pilgrimage and the End of the Medieval Crusades of the Middle Ages.

Middle Ages Knights
The Middle Ages was dominated by the feudal system and the role of the knights and their servants. Their life, living conditions, clothing, weapons, training, armor, tournaments and jousts. The Knights Templar organisation was also formed during the Middle Ages. Knighthood Training. Included in this section are Facts about Knights. The training of Knights during the Middle Ages, the Steps to Knighthood, the lives of the Squires culminating in the Order of Knighthood Ceremony which occurred after about 14 years of training. The Knights Code of Chivalry, rules about Courtly Love and Knights Tournaments. Learn about jousting, the History of Jousting, Jousting Terminology and Jousting Weapons. Finally facts and information about a Knights Armor, Chainmail and his war horse called a Destrier. In fact everything you need to now about Middle Ages Knights.

Knights Templar
The crusades saw the emergence of religious knights including the Knights Templar, the Teutonic knights and the Hospitallers. The members of the orders of Religious knights were both monks and knights; that is, to the monastic vows of chastity, poverty, and obedience they added a fourth vow, which bound them to protect pilgrims and fight the infidels. This section details facts and information about the Templar Knights, the Knights Templar History, Knights Templar Banking, a Knights Templar Timeline, the Names of Knights Templar Leaders, the role of the Religious Knights, the Teutonic Knights and the Knights Hospitaller.

Middle Ages Weapons
Every man was expected to be able to use weapons during the Middle Ages. There were basically two types of armed men during the Medieval era - The Knights and the Foot soldiers, who included the Archers. Middle Ages weapons and the training of soldiers during the Middle Ages including a Knights Weapons, the Quintain, Pell Training, Pell Mell and the Butts. The Medieval Shields and the  Medieval Swords including the Broadsword, the Falchion sword, the Greatsword, the Longsword and the Scimitar. The different types of Polearms that were used as weapons during the Middle Ages including the Lance, the Halberd, the Pike, the Poleaxe and Spears. This comprehensive section then goes on to provide interesting facts and information about Battle Axes, Batons, Maces, the Billhook, Caltrops, the Flail, the Quarterstaff, the Warhammer, the Longbow, the Crossbow and other types of Bows and their arrows.

Medieval Siege Weapons used during the Middle Ages
Medieval Siege Weapons used during the Middle Ages were the Ballista, Catapult, Mangonel, Battering Ram, Siege Tower and the awesome Trebuchet. A brief description of each of the major siege weapons and engines are described in this section. Gain an understanding of Siege Warfare during the Middle Ages and Siege Weapon Design. What happened when a castle or town came under siege. The use of the Siege Tower,
Catapults and the mysterious Greek Fire are also included in this section.

Middle Ages Castles
This section detailing information about Middle Ages castles illustrate the strength, magnificence and power of the Medieval warlords and their fortresses. This section of middle-ages.org.uk  details the History, Development and Architecture of Middle Ages Castles, Famous Middle Ages Castles, Middle Ages Castles built by the Normans, Motte and Bailey castles, Middle Ages Concentric Castles built by King Edward I and Defending, Destroying and Attacking Middle Ages Castles.

Middle Ages Torture
We are all horrified and at the same time fascinated by Middle Ages torture. The castles of the Middle Ages with their dark dungeons increase the growing curiosity about torture during the Middle Ages. The torture chambers and the various torture devices used during the Middle Ages are described in this section including the Rack Torture, Scavengers Daughter, The Brank or Scold's Bridle, Ducking Stool, Torture by Dislocation, Iron Balls Torture, Water Torture, The Boot Torture, Branding and Burning Tortures, Brodequins, Thumbscrews and the Pillory. Different types of execution methods are also described including being Burned at the Stake, Execution by Quartering, Execution by the Wheel, Execution by Hanging and being Hung, Drawn and Quartered.

Middle Ages - History of the Famous People
Famous Middle Ages people and details of the key dates and events in their lives. Famous Middle Ages people include great nobles, religious leaders, artists, scientists, military leaders, inventors and explorers including:

  • Marco Polo - famous explorer
  • Kublai Khan - Mongol leader and Emperor of China in he Middle Ages
  • Johann Gutenberg- famous inventor
  • Frederick Barbarossa - King of Germany and Crusader
  • Joan of Arc - Lead France to victory during the Hundred Years War
  • Peter the Hermit - Religious Crusader
  • Robert the Bruce - Famous King of Scotland
  • William Wallace - Braveheart hero of Scotland
  • Thomas Becket - Saint and Archbishop of Canterbury
  • Thomas Aquinas - One of the greatest theologians of the Catholic Church
  • Roger Bacon - Scientist, inventor and philosopher
  • Jack Cade - Leader of English rebellion
  • Lambert Simnel - A pretender to the throne of England
  • Perkin Warbeck - A pretender to the throne of England
  • El Cid - Famous Spanish hero
  • Tamerlane - Leader of the Monguls
  • William Tell - hero of Switzerland
  • John of Gaunt - famous Plantagenet Prince
  • Peter Abelard - Medieval Scholar and lover of Heloise
  • Blondel the Minstrel - the famous Medieval minstrel of legend

Other famous people included with a short biography include Geoffrey of Monmouth, Saladin, Robin Hood, Donatello, Godfrey of Bouillon, Tancred de Hauteville, Giotto di Bondone, Hereward the Wake, Albertus Magnus, Leon Battista Alberti, Erasmus, Jan Hus, Cimabue, John Wycliffe, King Louis IX, William of Ockham, Vlad Dracula and Simon de Montfort. Famous Middle Ages people include great nobles, religious leaders, artists, scientists, military leaders, inventors and explorers - the Medieval heroes and villains.

Middle Ages Clothing
Middle Ages clothing and fashion like everything else was dictated by the Pyramid of Power which was the Middle Ages Feudal System. Medieval clothes provided information about the status of the person wearing them. This section provides information about the type of clothes and fashions worn during the era of the Middle Ages. Interesting facts and information about Middle Ages Clothing are detailed in this section: Sumptuary Laws of the Middle Ages, History of Fashion in the Middle Ages, Medieval Fashion, Middle Ages Ladies Dresses, Medieval Knight Clothing, Medieval Lord Clothing, Medieval Peasant Clothing, Medieval Kings Clothing, Medieval Women's Clothing, Monks Clothes in the Middle Ages, Nuns Clothes in the Middle Ages, Simple Dresses from the Middle Ages, Middle Ages Hairstyles

Middle Ages Women and Medieval Queens and Princesses
The lives of
Middle Ages women were dependent on their role and status. All women were expected to be subservient to the men in their family. What were the daily lives of Middle Ages women like and were women's rights during the Middle Ages? The Middle Ages Women section includes facts and information about Medieval Queens and Princesses. There is a biography containing key dates and events about the lives of famous Noble women such as Matilda of Flanders, Good Queen Maude, Queen Matilda, Queen Matilda of Boulogne, Eleanor of Aquitaine, Queen Berengaria of Navarre, Isabelle of Angouleme, Eleanor of Provence, Eleanor of Castile, Isabella of France, Philippa of Hainault, Mary de Bohun, Catherine of Valois, Margaret of Anjou, Elizabeth Woodville and Anne Neville. The names of famous Medieval women scatter the History books - they were mostly queens and princesses. But what about the women who were not of noble birth? Learn about the Medieval Mystics and the Mistresses, the Rich and the poor women of the Middle Ages. including Anna Comnena, Heloise, Hildegard of Bingen, Julian of Norwich, Christine de Pizan, Jane Shore, Alice Perrers, Katherine Swynford and Margery Kempe.

Middle Ages - Middle Ages Food
The people of the Middle Ages loved their food and drink. What food was consumed by the Upper and Lower class Middle Ages? A typical Middle Ages Menu and some Middle Ages recipes. This section includes Middle Ages Food for a King, Spices in the Middle Ages, Middle Ages Daily Meals, Middle Ages Food Preservation, Middle Ages Food and Diet, Foods of the Middle Ages, Cooking Food in the Middle Ages Middle Ages Drink, Middle Ages Fruit, Middle Ages Vegetables, Middle Ages Bread, Middle Ages Meat, Middle Ages Fish, Middle Ages Game and Middle Ages Food Recipes.

Kings in the Middle Ages
What were the duties of Kings in the Middle Ages? Short, concise biographies of the Kings in the Middle Ages. From 1066 -1154 - The Normans ruled the English after their victory at the Battle of Hastings. There are biographies and timelines of the Norman Kings, and even a Queen,  of the Middle Ages :

  • William the Conqueror timeline and biography
  • King William Rufus timeline and biography
  • King Henry I  timeline and biography
  • Queen Matilda timeline and biography
  • King Stephen timeline and biography

From 1154 - 1377 the Plantagenet Kings of England ruled the English during the Middle Ages. There are biographies and timelines detailing the lives and story of the following Kings in the Middle Ages:

  • King Henry II timeline and biography
  • King Richard I timeline and biography
  • King John timeline and biography
  • King Henry III timeline and biography
  • King Edward I timeline and biography
  • King Edward II timeline and biography
  • King Edward III timeline and biography

From 1377 - 1485 the Royal Houses of Lancaster and York became Kings of England in the Middle Ages and ruled the English. There are biographies and timelines detailing the lives and story of Kings in the Middle Ages and the War of the Roses:

  • King Richard II timeline and biography
  • King Henry IV timeline and biography
  • King Henry V timeline and biography
  • King Henry VI timeline and biography
  • King Edward IV timeline and biography
  • Edward V - One of the little Prices in the Tower
  • King Richard III timeline and biography

Middle Ages Timeline
A series of comprehensive Middle Ages Timelines of the Medieval period detail the major events significant to the lives and events of famous people and the Kings and Queens of England and Europe. In addition to the Middle Ages timeline are additional timelines including a Timeline of the First Crusade, a Timeline Of Middle Ages Kings Of England, Knights Templar Timeline, Early Middle Ages Timeline and a Late Middle Ages Timeline.

Middle Ages
Each section of this Middle Ages website addresses all topics and provides interesting facts and information about these great monuments to bygone times. The Sitemap provides full details of all of the information and facts provided about the fascinating subject of Middle Ages!


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Bibliography:
A General History for Colleges and High Schools Author: P. V. N. Myers


Middle Ages

  • Middle Ages era, period, life, age and times
  • Middle Ages Women
  • Middle Ages Castles, Knights and Weapons
  • Middle Ages Feudalism & Timeline
  • Middle Ages Castles and torture
  • Middle Ages Music, Clothing and Food
  • Life in the Middle Ages
  • History, Kings & People in the Middle Ages
  • Domesday Book, Black Death, Magna Carta, Battle of Hastings, Wars of the Roses,
    the One Hundred Years War,and the Bayeux Tapestry in the Middle Ages
  • Crusades in Middle Ages

Middle Ages

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